Term: Anaesthesia

Definition: Anaesthesia refers to the practice of administering medications either by injection or by inhalation (breathing in) that blocks the feeling of pain and other sensations, or that produce a deep state of unconsciousness that eliminates all sensations, which allows medical and surgical procedures to be undertaken without causing undue distress or discomfort.


Term: Brachial Plexus

Definition: The Brachial Plexus is a network of nerves that originate in the neck region and branch off to form most of the other nerves that control movement and sensation in the upper limbs, including the shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand.


Term: Carpal tunnel syndrome

Definition: A condition caused by pressure to the median nerve within the wrist or carpal tunnel causing pain, tingling and numbness.

Term: Cubital tunnel syndrome

Definition: A similar condition to carpal tunnel syndrome, causing numbness, pain and tingling in the ring and little fingers


Term: Dupuytren's contracture

Definition: A disabling hand disorder in which thick, scar-like tissue bands form within the palm and may extend into the fingers. It can cause restricted movement, bending the fingers into an abnormal position.


Term: Extensor tendon

Definition: A tendon which serves to extend a finger or hand.


Term: Flexor tendon

Definition: A tendon which serves to bend a finger or hand.

Term: Flap

Definition: Tissue moved around the body with an intact blood supply


Term: General anaesthesia

Definition: Drugs and/or gases used during an operation to relieve pain and alter consciousness.

Term: Graft

Definition: Tissue taken from other parts of the body


Term: Hand Therapy

Definition: The treatment of hand disease, injury or deformity by physical methods such as massage, heat treatment, and exercise rather than by drugs or surgery. A mixture of physiotherapy and occupational therapy specifically for hand problems


Term: Intravenous sedation

Definition: Sedatives administered by injection into a vein to help you relax.

Term: Intra-articular Fractures

Definition: Intra-articular fractures are those in which the break crosses into the surface of a joint. They always result in some degree of cartilage damage. In addition to the usual considerations in fracture management, the relative position of the bone fragments and their relationship to ligament attachments are critical.


Term: Microsurgery

Definition: High magnification to repair or reconnect severed nerves and blood vessels, common in trauma cases and often used to reattach severed fingers or limbs.


Term: Osteoarthritis

Definition: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of your bones wears down over time.

Term: Osteophytes

Definition: Bone spurs or Osteophytes, are bony projections that form along joints, and are often seen in conditions such as arthritis. Bone spurs are largely responsible for limitations in joint motion and can cause pain.


Term: Polydactyly

Definition: The presence of extra fingers.


Term: Rheumatoid arthritis

Definition: A disabling disease that can cause severe inflammation in any joint of the body. In the hand, it can deform fingers and impair movement.


Term: Syndactyly

Definition: When fingers are fused together at birth


Term: Tendon

Definition: A tough cord or band of dense white fibrous connective tissue that unites a muscle with some other part.

Term: Tenolysis

Definition: A surgical procedure to free a tendon from surrounding adhesions.

Term: Trigger finger

Definition: An abnormal condition in which flexion or extension of a finger may be momentarily obstructed by spasm followed by a snapping into place.


Term: Ulnar Nerve

Definition: A large superficial nerve of the arm that is a continuation of the medial cord of the brachial plexus, passes around the elbow superficially in a groove between the olecranon and the medial epicondyle of the humerus and continues down the inner side of the forearm to supply the skin and muscles of the little-finger side of the forearm and hand.


Term: Volar (palmar) Plate

Definition: The Volar Plate or probably better referred to as the 'palmar plate' can be defined as a very thick ligament that prevents hyperextension of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint from occurring. If there is enough force during hyperextension, the disruption may cause a rupture of the Palmar Plate at its insertion on the middle phalanx of a finger.


Term: Z-plasty

Definition: A surgical incision technique that creates small triangular flaps of tissue that help to close wounds over areas of the hand where bending or flexing is essential to function.